These Terms & Conditions were last updated on 16 June 2021.

On this page you will find the Terms & Conditions that relate to the Conditions of Usage and Conditions of Sale of this website.



These terms tell you a) the rules for using our website and (all other websites, social media and other online properties operated by us and the Fred Perry Group (defined below)) and b) the terms and conditions on which we supply products to you via this website.

Click on the links below to go straight to more information on each area:



1.1 Beside Trading Co. LLC, (referred to in these Terms as “we”, or “us”) is a limited liability company registered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), whose registered number is 547848 and whose registered address is at PO Box 61237, Building 4, Street N302, Jebel Ali Free Zone North, Dubai, UAE with a paid up share capital of AED 300,000. Our VAT number is 100305428300003.

1.2 We are the distributor and authorised reseller of Fred Perry clothing and accessories, as appointed by the Fred Perry Group of companies (the Fred Perry Group being the owner and manufacturer of the “Fred Perry” brand).  Fred Perry Limited and Fred Perry (Holdings) Limited are  registered in England and Wales under company number 3114528 and 03114539 (respectively) and both have their registered office at 37 Mount Pleasant, Clerkenwell, London, WC1X 0AA, England. The main trading address for Fred Perry is 37 Mount Pleasant, Clerkenwell, London, WC1X 0AA, England. Our VAT number is GB 668 01 67 20.  Fred Perry Limited and Fred Perry (Holdings) Limited together, being the “Fred Perry Group”.

1.3 We are a limited company.


2.1 By using our site, you confirm that you accept these terms of use and that you agree to comply with them.

2.2 If you do not agree to these terms, you must not use our site.

2.3 We recommend that you print a copy of these terms for future reference.


3.1 These terms of use refer to the following additional terms, which also apply to your use of our site:

  1. Our Privacy Policy, which sets out the terms on which we process any personal data we collect from you, or that you provide to us. By using our site, you consent to such processing and you warrant that all data provided by you is accurate.
  2. Our Cookie Policy, which sets out information about the cookies on our site.
  3. If you purchase goods from our site, our Terms and conditions of salewill apply to the sales.

4.1 We amend these terms from time to time. Every time you wish to use our site, please check these terms to ensure you understand the terms that apply at that time.


5.1 We may update and change our site from time to time.


6.1 Our site is made available free of charge.

6.2 We do not guarantee that our site, or any content on it, will always be available or be uninterrupted. We may suspend or withdraw or restrict the availability of all or any part of our site for business and operational reasons. We will try to give you reasonable notice of any suspension or withdrawal.

6.3 You are also responsible for ensuring that all persons who access our site through your internet connection are aware of these terms of use and other applicable terms and conditions, and that they comply with them.


7.1 If you choose, or you are provided with, a user identification code, password or any other piece of information as part of our security procedures, you must treat such information as confidential. You must not disclose it to any third party.

7.2 We have the right to disable any user identification code or password, whether chosen by you or allocated by us, at any time, if in our reasonable opinion you have failed to comply with any of the provisions of these terms of use.

7.3 If you know or suspect that anyone other than you knows your user identification code or password, you must promptly notify us here.


8.1The Fred Perry Group is the owner or the licensee of all intellectual property rights in our site, and in the material published on it. Those works are protected by copyright laws around the world. All such rights are reserved.  Where relevant, we have a licence to use the intellectual property rights in our site.

8.2 You may print off one copy, and may download extracts, of any page(s) from our site for your personal use and you may draw the attention of others within your organisation to content posted on our site.

8.3 You must not modify the paper or digital copies of any materials you have printed off or downloaded in any way, and you must not use any illustrations, photographs, video or audio sequences or any graphics separately from any accompanying text.

8.4 Our status (and that of any identified contributors) as the authors of content on our site must always be acknowledged.

8.5 You must not use any part of the content on our site for commercial purposes without obtaining a licence to do so from us or our licensors.

8.6 If you print off, copy or download any part of our site in breach of these terms of use, your right to use our site will cease immediately and you must, at our option, return or destroy any copies of the materials you have made.


9.1 The content on our site is provided for general information only. It is not intended to amount to advice on which you should rely.

9.2 You must obtain professional or specialist advice before taking, or refraining from, any action on the basis of the content on our site.

9.3 Although we make reasonable efforts to update the information on our site, we make no representations, warranties or guarantees, whether express or implied, that the content on our site is accurate, complete or up to date.


10.1 Where our site contains links to other sites and resources provided by third parties, these links are provided for your information only. Such links should not be interpreted as approval by us of those linked websites or information you may obtain from them.

10.2 We have no control over the contents of those sites or resources.


11.1 Our sites may include information and materials uploaded by other users of the sites. This information and these materials have not been verified or approved by us.

11.2 The views expressed by other users on our sites do not represent our views or values.

11.3 If you wish to complain about information and materials uploaded by other users please contact us here.


12.1 Whether you are a consumer or a business user:

  1. We do not exclude or limit in any way our liability to you where it would be unlawful to do so.
  2. Different limitations and exclusions of liability will apply to liability arising as a result of the supply of any products to you, which will be set out in our Terms and conditions of sale.

12.2 If you are a business user:

  1. We exclude all implied conditions, warranties, representations or other terms that may apply to our site or any content on it.
  2. We will not be liable to you for any loss or damage, whether in contract, tort (including negligence), breach of statutory duty, or otherwise, even if foreseeable, arising under or in connection with:
    1. use of, or inability to use, our site; or
    2. use of or reliance on any content displayed on our site.
  3. In particular, we will not be liable for:
    1. loss of profits, sales, business, or revenue;
    2. business interruption;
    3. loss of anticipated savings;
    4. loss of business opportunity, goodwill or reputation; or
    5. any indirect or consequential loss or damage.

12.3 If you are a consumer user:

  1. Please note that we only provide our site for domestic and private use. You agree not to use our site for any commercial or business purposes, and we have no liability to you for any loss of profit, loss of business, business interruption, or loss of business opportunity.
  2. If defective digital content that we have supplied, damages a device or digital content belonging to you and this is caused by our failure to use reasonable care and skill, we will either repair the damage or pay you compensation.

13.1 By registering or using any of our sites, you accept and agree to the following:


13.2 You may use our sites (and in particular our social media sites) only for lawful purposes. You may not use our site:

  1. In any way that breaches any applicable local, national or international law or regulation or the cultural norms of the United Arab Emirates.
  2. In any way that is unlawful or fraudulent, or has any unlawful or fraudulent purpose or effect.
  3. For the purpose of harming or attempting to harm minors in any way.
  4. To send, knowingly receive, upload, download, use or re-use any material which does not comply with our content standards (You must comply with our acceptable use terms).
  5. To transmit, or procure the sending of, any unsolicited or unauthorised advertising or promotional material or any other form of similar solicitation (spam).
  6. To knowingly transmit any data, send or upload any material that contains viruses, Trojan horses, worms, time-bombs, keystroke loggers, spyware, adware or any other harmful programs or similar computer code designed to adversely affect the operation of any computer software or hardware.

13.3 You also agree:

  1. Not to reproduce, duplicate, copy or re-sell any part of our site in contravention of the provisions of these terms and conditions of website use.
  2. Not to access without authority, interfere with, damage or disrupt:
    • any part of our sites;
    • any equipment or network on which our site is stored;
    • any software used in the provision of our site; or
    • any equipment or network or software owned or used by any third party.


13.4 We may from time to time provide interactive services on our site, including, without limitation:

  1. Chat rooms.
  2. Bulletin boards.
  3. Message/comment boards.
  4. Social networks.


13.5 We will do our best to assess any possible risks for users (and in particular, for children) from third parties when they use any interactive service provided on our site, and we will decide in each case whether it is appropriate to use moderation of the relevant service (including what kind of moderation to use) in the light of those risks. However, we are under no obligation to oversee, monitor or moderate any interactive service we provide on our site, and we expressly exclude our liability for any loss or damage arising from the use of any interactive service by a user in contravention of our content standards, whether the service is moderated or not.

13.6 The use of any of our interactive services by a minor is subject to the consent of their parent or guardian. We advise parents who permit their children to use an interactive service that it is important that they communicate with their children about their safety online, as moderation is not foolproof. Minors who are using any interactive service should be made aware of the potential risks to them.


13.7 These content standards apply to any and all material which you contribute to our site (“contributions”), and to any interactive services associated with it.

13.8 You must comply with the spirit and the letter of the following standards. The standards apply to each part of any contribution as well as to its whole.

13.9 Contributions must:

  1. Be accurate (where they state facts).
  2. Be genuinely held (where they state opinions).
  3. Comply with applicable law in the UAE and in any country from which they are posted.

13.10 Contributions must not:

  1. Contain any material which is defamatory of any person.
  2. Contain any material which is obscene, offensive, hateful or inflammatory.
  3. Promote sexually explicit material.
  4. Promote violence.
  5. Promote discrimination based on race, sex, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation or age.
  6. Infringe any copyright, database right or trade mark of any other person.
  7. Be likely to deceive any person.
  8. Be made in breach of any legal duty owed to a third party, such as a contractual duty or a duty of confidence.
  9. Be contrary to any laws or promote any illegal activity.
  10. Be threatening, abuse or invade another’s privacy, or cause annoyance, inconvenience or needless anxiety.
  11. Be likely to harass, upset, embarrass, alarm or annoy any other person.
  12. Be used to impersonate any person, or to misrepresent your identity or affiliation with any person.
  13. Give the impression that they emanate from us or Fred Perry, if this is not the case.
  14. Advocate, promote or assist any unlawful act such as (by way of example only) copyright infringement or computer misuse.

13.11 You warrant that any such contribution does comply with these standards, and you will be liable to us and indemnify us for any breach of that warranty. This means you will be responsible for any loss or damage we suffer as a result of your breach of warranty.

13.12 Any content you upload to our sites will be considered non-confidential and non-proprietary. You retain all of your ownership rights in your content, but you are required to grant us, Fred Perry and other users of our site a licence to use, store and copy that content and to distribute and make it available to third parties. The rights you license to us are described in Rights you are giving us to use material you upload.

13.13 We also have the right to disclose your identity to any third party who is claiming that any content posted or uploaded by you to our site constitutes a violation of their intellectual property rights, or of their right to privacy.

13.14 We have the right to remove any posting you make on our site if, in our opinion, your post does not comply with the content standards set out in these terms of use.

13.15 You are solely responsible for securing and backing up your content.


13.16 We will determine, in our discretion, whether there has been a breach of these terms of use through your use of our sites. When a breach of the terms has occurred, we may take such action as we deem appropriate.

13.17 We exclude liability for actions taken in response to breaches of these terms of use.


14.1 When you upload or post content to our sites (and in particular when you hashtag #YesFred on any of our social media brand accounts), you grant us, Fred Perry and other users of the sites the following rights to use that content:

  1. To us, the Fred Perry Group and our affiliates and agents, a perpetual, irrevocable, fully transferable, fully paid, non-exclusive, royalty-free licence, to use, reproduce, modify, create derivative works from, display, store, adapt, publish, translate, display and distribute your content, along with your name and likeness, throughout the world in any existing or future media, without obtaining additional consent, without the need to provide any attribution, without restriction, without the need to notify you, and without any duty or obligation to compensate you in any way.
  2. To third parties, a limited licence to use the content for their purposes or in accordance with the functionality of the sites.

14.2 You acknowledge that we have no obligation of confidentiality in relation to any material you submit to us via the sites.


15.1 We do not guarantee that our site will be secure or free from bugs or viruses.

15.2 You are responsible for configuring your information technology, computer programmes and platform to access our site. You should use your own virus protection software.

15.3 You must not misuse our site by knowingly introducing viruses, trojans, worms, logic bombs or other material that is malicious or technologically harmful. You must not attempt to gain unauthorised access to our site, the server on which our site is stored or any server, computer or database connected to our site. You must not attack our site via a denial-of-service attack or a distributed denial-of service attack. By breaching this provision, you would commit a criminal offence under the UAE Cybercrimes Law. We will report any such breach to the relevant law enforcement authorities and we will co-operate with those authorities by disclosing your identity to them. In the event of such a breach, your right to use our site will cease immediately.


16.1 You may link to our home page, provided you do so in a way that is fair and legal and does not damage our reputation or take advantage of it.

16.2 You must not establish a link in such a way as to suggest any form of association, approval or endorsement on our part where none exists.

16.3 You must not establish a link to our site in any website that is not owned by you.
Our site must not be framed on any other site, nor may you create a link to any part of our site other than the home page.

16.4 We reserve the right to withdraw linking permission without notice.

16.5 The website in which you are linking must comply in all respects with the content standards set out in You must comply with our acceptable use terms.

16.6 If you wish to link to or make any use of content on our site other than that set out above, please contact us here.


17.1 These terms of use, their subject matter and their formation, are governed by UAE law. You and we both agree that the courts of the Dubai International Financial Centre will have exclusive jurisdiction.


18.1 "Fred Perry" and the "Laurel Wreath" are registered trade marks of the Fred Perry Group. You are not permitted to use them without our approval, unless they are part of material you are using as permitted under How you may use material on our site.

18.2 All content on this site (including, without limitation, text, designs, graphics, logos, icons, images, films, audio clips, downloads, interfaces, code and software) is owned by us or the Fred Perry Group or licensed to us or the Fred Perry Group, or our affiliates, and our respective licensors or content providers, and is protected by copyright, trade mark and other applicable laws. Your use of the site does not entitle you to any intellectual property rights or any other rights to our content, other than the limited rights of use granted to you pursuant to these terms. You may not use the website or our content on the site for any commercial purpose whatsoever.



1.1 What these terms cover. These are the terms and conditions on which we supply products to you. If you buy goods on our site you agree to be legally bound by these terms and conditions. You may only buy goods from our site for non-business reasons.

1.2 Why you should read them. Please read these terms carefully before you submit your order to us. These terms tell you who we are, how we will provide products to you, how you and we may change or end the contract, what to do if there is a problem and other important information. If you think that there is a mistake in these terms, please contact us to discuss.


2.1 Who we are. We are Beside Trading Co. LLC (referred to in these Terms as “we”, or “us”) is a limited liability company registered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), whose registered number is 547848 and whose registered address is at PO Box 61237, Building 4, Street N302, Jebel Ali Free Zone North, Dubai, UAE.

2.2 How to contact us. You can contact us by telephoning our customer service team at [email protected] or call +971 (0)4 5861111 for the UAE and other countries or +966 (0)11 5202888 for KSA (Sunday-Thursday 10:00am–5:00pm (KSA time zone) / Friday-Saturday 3:00pm–10:00pm (KSA time zone).

2.3 How we may contact you. If we have to contact you we will do so by telephone or by writing to you at the email address you provided to us in your order.

2.4 "Writing" includes emails. When we use the words "writing" or "written" in these terms, this includes emails.


3.1 How we will accept your order. When you place your order at the end of our online checkout process, we will acknowledge it by email and may send you a follow up order confirmation, also by email. These acknowledgements and confirmation emails do not mean that your order has been accepted, nor do they guarantee that your order can be fulfilled. Our acceptance of your order will take place when we dispatch the goods to you. Dispatch represents the moment where a ‘contract of sale’ is made between us and you. Please note your credit/debit card may be charged at any point between acknowledgement of your order and dispatch.

3.2 If we cannot accept your order. If we are unable to accept your order, we will inform you of this. We may not accept your order for the following reasons:

  1. the product is out of stock or otherwise unavailable,
  2. unexpected limits on our resources which we could not reasonably plan for,
  3. we cannot authorise your payment,
  4. we are not allowed to sell the goods to you, or you are not allowed to buy the goods from us,
  5. you have ordered too many goods,
  6. there has been a mistake in the pricing or description of the product
  7. we are unable to meet a delivery deadline you have specified
  8. your order has failed to satisfy our standard fraud checks.
  9. if we suspect you are an unauthorised re-seller, or
  10. for any other reason in our sole discretion

3.3 Your order number. We will assign an order number to your order and include it in your order confirmation email. It will help us if you can tell us the order number whenever you contact us about your order.


4.1 Products may vary slightly from their pictures. The images of the products on our website are for illustrative purposes only. Although we have made every effort to display the colours accurately, we cannot guarantee that a device's display of the colours accurately reflects the colour of the products. Your product may vary slightly from those images.

4.2 Not all of the products we sell are available for sale through the site. Additional products are available in Fred Perry shops and concessions all around the world. Please visit us our shop finder in order to find your nearest shop.

4.3 Product packaging may vary. The packaging of the product may vary from that shown in images on our website.


If you wish to make a change to the product you have ordered please contact us. We will let you know if the change is possible. If it is possible we will let you know about any changes to the price of the product, the timing of supply or anything else which would be necessary as a result of your requested change and ask you to confirm whether you wish to go ahead with the change. If we cannot make the change or the consequences of making the change are unacceptable to you, you may want to exchange or return the product (see clause 9.3 – Right of Exchange or Return).


Changes to the products and these terms. We may change the product and these terms. We may make changes to these terms or the product, but if we do so we will notify you and you may then contact us to end the contract before the changes take effect and receive a refund for any products paid for but not received. A revision of these terms and conditions will apply to contracts entered into at any time following the time of the revision, but will not affect contracts made before the time of the revision.


7.1 Delivery methods. We use DPD to deliver our goods. If you want to see your delivery options, visit our Delivery page before you place your order.

7.2 Delivery costs. The costs of delivery will be as displayed to you on our website.

7.3 When we will provide the products. During the order process we will let you know when we will dispatch the products to you. We will send you a confirmation order with an estimated delivery date and will use reasonable endeavours to deliver your products on or before the date for delivery set out in the order confirmation. If no date is set out in the order confirmation, we will deliver your products to you as soon as reasonably practicable.

7.4 We are not responsible for delays outside our control. If our supply of the products is delayed by an event outside our control then we will contact you as soon as possible to let you know and we will take steps to minimise the effect of the delay. Provided we do this we will not be liable for delays caused by the event, but if there is a risk of substantial delay you may contact us to end the contract and receive a refund for any products you have paid for but not received.

7.5 When you become responsible for the goods. A product will be your responsibility from the time we deliver the product to the address you gave us or you collect it from us. In other words, the risk in the goods passes to you when you take possession of the goods.

7.6 When you own goods. You own a product once we have received payment in full.

7.7 We only deliver to certain locations. We will only deliver products to the addresses listed on the Delivery page of this website.


8.1 We may end the contract if you break it. We may end the contract for a product at any time by writing to you if:

  1. you do not make any payment to us when it is due and you still do not make payment within 7 days of us reminding you that payment is due;
  2. you do not, within a reasonable time of us asking for it, provide us with information that is necessary for us to provide the products;
  3. you do not, within a reasonable time, allow us to deliver the products to you or collect them from us; or
  4. if any of the issues set out in clause 3.2 above arise after we have accepted your order.

8.2 You must compensate us if you break the contract. If we end the contract in the situations set out in clause 8.1 we will refund any money you have paid in advance for products we have not provided but we may deduct or charge you reasonable compensation for the net costs we will incur as a result of your breaking the contract.


9.1 How to tell us about problems. If you have any questions or complaints about the product, please contact us. You can telephone our customer service team at [email protected] or call +971 (0)4 5861111 for the UAE and other countries or +966 (0)11 5202888 for KSA (Sunday-Thursday 10:00am–5:00pm (KSA time zone) / Friday-Saturday 3:00pm–10:00pm (KSA time zone).

9.2 Summary of your legal rights. Nothing in these terms will affect your legal rights. These rights are however subject to certain exceptions. In accordance with the UAE Federal Law No. 15 of 2020 on Consumer Protection, we warrant that for a period of 7 days from delivery (“Warranty Period”) all our products will (i) be free from defects or manufacturing defects and (ii) conform with the specifications.  You should check all products you receive against your order. If you receive products that are damaged or incorrectly supplied then you must tell us within 7 days of delivery and return the products to us as soon as possible.  Please note that we will not accept the return of any damaged, defective or incorrectly supplied products where you fail to notify us and return the product within the applicable Warranty Period.  Subject to compliance with the foregoing, if during the Warranty Period the products are damaged (other than by you or reasons outside of our control), defective or have been incorrectly supplied then we will, at our option and cost, provide a replacement, repair the product or refund your money.

9.3 Right of Exchange or Return.  In addition to your statutory rights under clause 9.2, we also offer an exchange and returns policy on our products subject to the terms set out below:

  1. exchanges or returns must be made within 30 days of purchase of the products;
  2. you will need to contact our customer care centre via telephone on +971 (0)4 5861111 or e-mail us on [email protected] and provide us with details of the product to be returned along the item name, size and colour and the reason for the return;
  3. the products must be returned in the original packaging and/or box, in original unused condition and with all tags attached;
  4. due to hygiene reasons, no exchange or refunds will be provided on underwear, swimwear or earrings;
  5. original proof of purchase must be provided;
  6. products purchased from a store must be returned to the same store and cannot be returned via the website;
  7. products purchased from our website by registered users can be returned via the website;
  8. once the delivery company has picked up your product, it will be inspected by our fulfilment centre for compliance with the above terms and you will be informed if the product is accepted for return or exchange;
  9. for refunds, delivery fees and any cash on delivery fees are non-refundable and any bank charges and a collection fee of AED30 will be deducted from your amount to be refunded; and
  10. for exchanges, exchange of the product for a different size is only available if the requested size is in stock. Please note that an exchange is allowed only once per order. If the exchanged order still does not fit, you can request for a refund.

Any refunds given by us will be made within 10 to 14 working days to the credit card account provided when you placed your order.  If the products were paid for by cash, the refund will be made either (i) via bank transfer to your nominated bank account in the UAE if the return is initiated via the website or (ii) in cash at the store if the return is initiated there.


10.1 Where to find the price for the product. The price of the product (which includes VAT at the applicable rate) will be the price indicated on the order pages when you placed your order. The price does not include the cost of delivering the goods. We use our best efforts to ensure that the price of the product advised to you is correct. However please see clause 10.2 for what happens if we discover an error in the price of the product you order.

10.2 What happens if we got the price wrong? It is always possible that, despite our best efforts, some of the products we sell may be incorrectly priced. We will normally check prices before accepting your order so that, where the product's correct price at your order date is less than our stated price at your order date, we will charge the lower amount. If the product's correct price at your order date is higher than the price stated to you, we will contact you for your instructions before we accept your order.

10.2 When you must pay and how you must pay. We accept payment made by any of the permitted methods specified on this website from time to time. You must pay for the products before we deliver them or at the time of delivery in case you have selected the cash on delivery option.

10.3 What to do if you think an invoice is wrong. If you think an invoice is wrong please contact us promptly to let us know. Once the dispute is resolved we will charge you interest on correctly invoiced sums from the original due date.


11.1 We are not responsible to you for any loss not caused by us. We will not be liable to you in respect of any losses arising out of any event or events beyond our reasonable control.

11.2 We do not exclude or limit in any way our liability to you where it would be unlawful to do so. This includes liability for death or personal injury caused by our negligence or any other liability which cannot be excluded or limited by Saudi law.

11.3 We are not liable for business losses. We only supply the products for domestic and private use. If you use the products for any commercial, business or re-sale purpose we will have no liability to you for any loss of profit, loss of business, business interruption, or loss of business opportunity.


12.1 How we will use your personal information. We will use the personal information you provide to us:

  1. to supply the products to you;
  2. to process your payment for the products; and
  3. if you agreed to this during the order process, to give you information about similar products that we or Fred Perry may provide, but you may stop receiving this at any time by contacting us; and
  4. as otherwise specified in our Privacy Policy.

12.2 We may pass your personal information to Fred Perry and selected third parties.

12.3 We will only give your personal information to third parties where the law either requires or allows us to do so or as otherwise specifically stated in our Privacy Policy.


13.1 We may transfer this agreement to someone else. We may transfer our rights and obligations under these terms to another organisation.

13.2 You need our consent to transfer your rights to someone else. You may only transfer your rights or your obligations under these terms to another person if we agree to this in writing.

13.3 Nobody else has any rights under this contract. This contract is between you and us. No other person shall have any rights to enforce any of its terms.

13.4 If a court finds part of this contract illegal, the rest will continue in force. Each of the paragraphs of these terms operates separately. If any court or relevant authority decides that any of them are unlawful, the remaining paragraphs will remain in full force and effect.

13.5 Even if we delay in enforcing this contract, we can still enforce it later. If we do not insist immediately that you do anything you are required to do under these terms, or if we delay in taking steps against you in respect of your breaking this contract, that will not mean that you do not have to do those things and it will not prevent us taking steps against you at a later date. For example, if you miss a payment and we do not chase you but we continue to provide the products, we can still require you to make the payment at a later date.

13.6 Which laws apply to this contract and disputes relating to the contract, and where you may bring legal proceedings? These terms and any disputes relating to a contract under these terms, are governed by Saudi law and you can bring legal proceedings in respect of the products in the Saudi courts.